N.J.S.A. 2C:2-1 – Requirement of Voluntary Act

2C:2-1 Requirement of Voluntary Act; Omission as Basis of Liability; Possession as an Act

2C:2-1. Requirement of Voluntary Act; Omission as Basis of Liability; Possession as an act. a. A person is not guilty of an offense unless his liability is based on conduct which includes a voluntary act or the omission to perform an act of which he is physically capable. A bodily movement that is not a product of the effort or determination of the actor, either conscious or habitual, is not a voluntary act within the meaning of this section.

b. Liability for the commission of an offense may not be based on an omission unaccompanied by action unless:

(1) The omission is expressly made sufficient by the law defining the offense; or

(2) A duty to perform the omitted act is otherwise imposed by law, including but not limited to, laws such as the “Uniform Fire Safety Act,” P.L.1983, c.383 (C.52:27D-192 et seq.), the “State Uniform Construction Code Act,” P.L.1975, c.217 (C.52:27D-119 et seq.), or any other law intended to protect the public safety or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder.

c. Possession is an act, within the meaning of this section, if the possessor knowingly procured or received the thing possessed or was aware of his control thereof for a sufficient period to have been able to terminate his possession.

L.1978, c.95; amended 1997,c.180,s.1.

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